Friday, December 27, 2019

Research Proposals About Effects of Cell Phones on Human Society

The modern technology has led to advanced developments. A good example of modern collection of technology is our cell phones. Cellular phones have had a main impact on our lives and the way that we carry out daily errands. This fact sheet therefore provides imminent into the study of the effects that cell phones have on human society and personal health. Although cell phones serve to assist lives on a daily basis, they also have a few rebellious and unwanted effects. Towards contribution to the society, cell phones create culturally innovative, informative and converging society (Jeanne Ballantine 90). Research shows that several areas within the society settings have direct influences caused by cell phones. This includes Contributions to cooperative benefit of the persons via communal accountability, public sector upgrading and the development of infrastructure. Furthermore, cell phones have become part of life in everybody life and thus many feel as if are handicapped without them. Therefore, nowadays phones generate positive alteration in the society dynamics through various contributions such as socialization whereby they keep people in close contact with their friends and partners (Burgess 87). Also they are necessary in social and political unions and communication competence whereby communication has been made easier and faster. On the other hand, cell phones can also be out looked on their negative impacts which they cause to the society. Cell phones have so much technology and are destroying the original way of using certain things, such as pay phones, internet and email. These negative impacts of cell phones on the social living styles jointly produce typical impression on the financial system, wherein it suffers worldwide. With the advanced technology, cell phones are made in a way that they can serve multiple functions of other network systems (Bainbridge 142). This remains to be a challenge on the field of technology since the small gadgets are replacing and changing the original way of doing things. Modern cell phones are now like mini computers because of the features and applications they have. This is based on the fact that, they are small enough in size; thus can be carried anywhere. At the same time they serve the purpose of computer since they contain several useful functions in addition to giving easy access on the internet. Basically, cell phones have brought a whole new sense to the term multitasking (Reynolds 143). This calls for handling several activities at the same time thus saving on costs and other expenses which could be incurred on other network devices. Unfortunately, the same devices have negative impacts which affect humans on daily basis. Cell phones affect humans through various ways. This results from the excessive usage and obsessive communication with peers via phone calls and text messages. They cause increased expenses. Usage of cell phones is expensive thus it hampers socio economic succession which results to prominent stress level (Reynolds 224). Cell phones are associated with environmental effects especially in the cases where their batteries are disposed improperly. This releases harmful chemicals into the environment which cause harm to humans. Cell phones further are behind the many causes of auto accidents which occur due to talking sending text while still driving. Furthermore, cell phones are misused for blackmailing children and young women, kidnapping and capturing porn images. With connection to the relevant study on cell phones, it is true that they have both positive and negative impacts on human atmosphere. In conclusion and regardless of this, good thing decorated can wear away bad ones and therefore, it is important to look at the compensation more than the disadvantages aiming for greater heights (Bainbridge 67). From the above discussion we can all agree that cell phones have come with so much technology and as a result they have been destroying the original way of using certain things, such as pay phones, internet, and email. Works Cited Bainbridge, William. Mobile Computers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Burgess, Adams. Cellular phones, public fears, and a culture of precaution‎, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2004. Jeanne, Hill. Ballantine, Keith. Our Social World: Condensed Version, New York: New Press, 2008. Reynolds, Nicholas. Key Competencies in the Knowledge Society. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2010.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Term “New Literacy” Encompasses Such An Extensive Range

The term â€Å"new literacy† encompasses such an extensive range of topics that it has been difficult to clearly define and articulate. There are several important aspects to new literacy. At its most basic level, new literacy is the ability to read, comprehend, and write within the digital sphere (Kingsley Tancock, 2014). It is similar to traditional literacy in some ways; however, new literacies typically require a more complicated and intricate skill set than traditional literacy (Coiro, 2011). Also fundamental to new literacy is the fact that it is always evolving. Because of the very nature of technology and culture, literacy must change (Bulfin Koutsogiannis, 2012). New skills are continually needed in order for individuals to engage†¦show more content†¦It requires a different skill set – discernment of underlying motives, using a search engine, and decoding relevant information from irrelevant information (Coiro, 2011). Because the internet is used as a source to learn from, online reading comprehension requires not only reading the information that can be found online, but also finding relevant and reliable sources, processing several sources, and creating new information from the multiple sources that were used (Leu et al., 2015). Also, online reading comprehension differs greatly from offline reading in that it occurs in many settings. These settings can be social in nature and can include many various forms of media – hyperlinks, videos, interactive chats, etc†¦(Leu et al., 2015). For this particular study, online reading comprehension will be defined as the ability to read and research online with the intent to communicate that information in some digital medium. To understand new literacy is to understand the evolution of technology and culture. Obviously, as technology has changed – especially with the explosion of access to the Internet – literacy has had to change as well. Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, a nd Cammack (2004) noted, â€Å"As the medium of the message changes, comprehension processes, decoding processes, and what ‘counts’ as literacy activities must change to reflect readers’ and authors’ present-day strategies for comprehension and response† (p. 1572). The single biggest factor that has contributed to theShow MoreRelatedEssay on Standardized Testing1458 Words   |  6 Pagespurpose of the No Child Left Behind act (NCLB) is to hold schools accountable for the performance of its students. This accountability is based on whether or not the schools, districts and states are making adequate yearly progress (AYP). This encompasses all students, including those from disadvantaged economic backgrounds, students with disabilities, students from minority ethnic or racial groups and those with limited English proficiency. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Safety and Risk Management for Health Hazards - myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theSafety and Risk Management for Health Hazards. Answer: Introduction: Work place description Kenoss had been given a contract by the ACT Government to carry out work relating to the resurfacing activities. This means the work assigned to Kenoss was that of construction industry (Employsure, 2015). The company had two sites one in which was the main site and the other one served as a store. It is evident that construction industries like that of kenos are important contributors to the economy of any country. In fact they are viewed as key drivers of economic growth more so in the developing countries. This industry is of relatively labor intensive nature and therefore the opportunities are quite many in this field. Some laborers may be skilled, unskilled or even semi-skilled (Aneziris et al., 2009). With the kind of work done at construction sites the environment therein is often considered risky and there are often many ill health problems to the staffs as well as high rates of accidents. These risks are not just for the employees alone but also end users and other practitioners. In all this regard the knowledge on the management of the health and safety risks at the sites has always been minimal as it was in the case of kenos and the project manager present at the site i.e. Al-Hassan. For any construction company to ensure that work has been done well there is the need to identify quality expectations and they should be communicated visually to all the workforces (Hassan, Obasha and Hanafi, 2007). Its hence the duty of managers to encourage employees to regularly measure themselves and determine how they perform on a daily basis. This seems not to be the case with the Kenoss Company. Health hazards at construction sites Construction sites are very important in any economy however they are among the most risky places for any individual to work in. this therefore calls for a lot of cautiousness to be exercised every time anyone is at the site either handling materials in either form or just even on a site visit with other interests (Giang and Low Sui Pheng, 2010). Workers in such sites are often subject to many ill health problems and fatalities. Most of the construction activities whether buildings, roads etc are a risk to safety and health and this could be but not limited to working undergrounds, on heights, doing work in places that are confined or even in close proximity to materials that are likely to fall, the handling of heavy loads in a manual manner, handling and use of substances that are hazardous, too much noise, dusts use of risky equipment and exposure to live electric cables as in the study case (Ismail and Ghani, 2012). After mining sites construction sites are ranked the second most dangerous working environments in many countries (Charles, Pillay and Ryan, 2007). Through major accidents and working conditions that are poor there has been an increase of deaths, severe injuries and disabilities that are permanent in the past years. This indeed sends a signal of negligence to health and safety regulations either on the part of companies involved or people at the sites (Doloi, 2009). Such increased scenarios are becoming a threat to the growth of this industry since most laborers are shying away from taking up jobs in various sites. How to handle safety and health risks at a construction site With the risks mentioned above there is need to device means of handling them within time so as to prevent them from occurring or to reducing the extent of the damages caused. Therefore the main focal point of dealing with such hazards is to use communication means as well as control strategies (Hallowell and Gambatese, 2010). These techniques are believed to reduce ill health problems and accidents. Once a construction company adopts a risk assessment strategy, good and prompt communication means then the risks can be managed, transferred, minimized, accepted or shared with ease. Its through risk assessment strategies that the degree of risks that employees may face due to an exposure to safety and health hazards can be used to make an establishment of what can be used to control or rather reduce risks and offer protection to the health of involved parties. Using risk assessment, communication and control those people involved in the project at the site are able to get information a nd be educated on the actions to be taken in case of a risk (Maytorena et al., 2007). People are also able to get early warnings of any disasters ad how emergencies can be handled. This therefore indicates that risk assessment, communication and control are the cornerstones of the legislation dealing with health and safety. There are work health and safety laws and acts that have been put in place however these acts are not that effective in many countries. This is because there is very little knowledge in regards to an industrys response and especially the practices that need to be used for the health and safety risk assessments as well as communication (Wu, Gibb and Li, 2010). People do not know how to deal with hazards on time to save the victims from fatal accidents, disabilities and deaths. The processing of risk information is also unknown to many. The lack of such crucial information and also good experience has set limits on the risk intervention processes that aim at the improvement of health and also the work environment is safe. There is need to identify safety and quality expectations and set achievable goals (Kikwasi, 2010). All these considerations can then be integrated into a project plan at the site which is cohesive. This ensures that everyone t the site is fully aware and responsible to be engaged in the proactive plans for any looming workplace hazards. What happened and how SAFEWORK resolved the issue in the case study This is a case perceived to be negligence of the health and safety measures at construction sites. The case was between a project manager Munir Al-Hasani and Kenoss Contractors. The ACT government contracted Kenoss to carry out the resurfacing of roads. Kenoss in its operations runs two sites i.e. an office site and a site for the storage of materials. For kenoss to accomplish its mandate it had to subcontract OMeley Truck Hire to deliver materials to the construction site. This was done on the 23rd of March 2012. The driver of this truck that was to deliver materials to the site was Michael Booth and he made the deliveries alone (Employsure, 2015). Despite having been at the site several times Booth was not aware of some hazardous risks at the site. While entering the site, Mr Booth tipped his truck so as to offload the deliveries. In the process of doing so, the bucket touched too low and came in contact with the power lines where an electric arc was formed. The contact was severe to the extent that the explosion caused burn marks damaging and deflating the truck tires. Mr Booth tried jumping out of the truck but he was electrocuted and died o the spot. No amount of resuscitation could bring him back to life (Enhance solutions, 2014). How safework resolved the issue In his defense OMeley said he had not undergone through a site induction exercise prior to the incident neither had he ever attended talks organized on safety talks. After hearing the case the court concluded that a breach of work health and safety act 2011 was committed by kenoss. This breach of the act had exposed Mr Booth to the risk of death due to the acciedent. Kenos as a company breached the act by using a site manager Al-Hasan who does not have the authority to perform the duties of an officer (Enhance solutions, 2014).This led to the company i.e. Kenoss to be fined $ 1.1 million for the safety breaches it committed which led to the death of Mr Booth. What could have been done differently? Its evident that the site had some live electricity wires that were a disaster in waiting. Therefore to avoid the death of Mr Booth, this electricity problem could have been dealt with and a correction dome before proceeding with construction work (Chia- Kung and Jaafar, 2012). Mr Al-Hassan could not have been given the roles of an officer in charge by Kenoss having known well that he was not experienced on matters to do with health and safety risks at a construction site. If an experienced officer was in charge he/she could have known what exactly needed to be done in terms of issuance of first aid services to Mr Booth which in the end they may have saved his life. Employment of an experienced officer would have also been of help to Mr Booth to offer directions as he drove in to deliver the materials by warning him of a live electric wire at the site (Cheng et al., 2010). Alternatively since Al-Hassan was not experienced he may have not seen the need to report to the authorities abo ut the live wires which led to electrocution of Mr Booth unlike if an experienced officer was in charge. Safety aspects that led to the incidence The company had not placed any safety signs at the site or even flags which were to act as warning of the presence of live power lines The access road to the work site could have been poorly done and managed and therefore leaving Mr Booth with no other entrance points apart from the area of live power lines From the turn of events its evident that the contractor had poor management techniques. This is because he had not bothered to attend trainings on safety at work places. The management also exercised negligence at work because they let Mr Booth to do the deliveries to the site alone without any other person accompanying him (Employsure, 2015). The construction site appeared as though it was a dumping site since the entrance gate did not have any locks to regulate traffic movement in and out of the site. Failure to turn off power lines during the delivery of materials time also contributed to the incidence happening hence another case of duty negligence. Failure to use a spotter contributed to the accident that led to Mr Booths death. Having had the officer in charge as the son of the general manager, kenos proved to have poor corporate culture. The company assigned duties to individuals based on relations and not qualifications as its a regulation of working conditions (Enhance solutions, 2014). The organization also proved beyond doubt in their defense that it did not have good documentation and an approach to safety that is supposed to be systemic. How I would have addressed the issue if I worked at the site If I was working at the site I would advocate for enforcement of safety and health regulations at work so as to avoid future incidents (Caccia, 2009). I would also make recommendations to the management to ensure they employ staffs in different sectors on merit basis and not on how one relates to the top management. With an aim of sensitizing the rest of the staff on risks at work place I would recommend the training of all the people working at the site on matters relating to safety and health risks. This would equip everyone at the site with (especially) first aid skills on matters that may arise in future that need urgent administration of first aids. I would advocate for installing of safety signs at the areas that people need to keep out of reach due to looming dangers (Aneziris, Papazoglou and Kallianiotis, 2010). To avoid future accidents from occurring I would advise the management to ensure the entrance has locks and well organized so that people do not confuse it with a dum ping site in future. Finally I would request for an assessment of electricity connection in the entire site to avoid any future power accidents. Conclusion Form the case of Kenoss and Al-Hasani its evident that there was a lot of breach to the work and health act by kenos which led to the death of Mr Booth. If only the company had taken into account all the looming risks and rectified the problem of the live power lines the driver could not have lost his life. Its therefore important that companies especially those that are in the construction industry should take the safety and health risk hazards seriously so as to avoid accidents that may be fatal or even lead to irreversible disabilities. All work need to be taken with the seriousness it deserves and this starts with employment of qualified personnel to oversee activities in different sectors. Its also the responsibility of construction managers to undergo trainings regarding safety practices at work places. Construction companies should always work on minimizing dangers and accidents at work places. References Aneziris, O.N., Papazoglou, I.A. and Kallianiotis, D. (2010). Occupational Risk of TunnellingConstruction. Journal of Safety Science 48, 964972. Aneziris, O.N., Papazoglou, I.A., Baksteen, H., Mud, M., Ale, B.J.,Bellamy, L.J., Hale, A.R., Bloemhoff, A., Post, J.,and Oh, J., (2009). Quantified Risk Assessment for fall from Height. Journal of Safety Science 46 (2), 198220. Caccia L.E. (2009). Risk communication in the Workplaces: An analysis of the Communication Toolkits as Rhetorical Practice. Doctorial Thesis. Kent State. Charles, M., Pillay , J. and Ryan R. (2007). Guide to Best Practice for Safer Construction:Literature review 'From concept to completion, Cooperative Research Centre for Construction Innovation, for Icon.Net Pty Ltd. Cheng, C., Leu, S., Lin, C. and Fan, C. (2010). Characteristic Analysis of Occupational Accidents at Small Construction Enterprises. Journal of Safety Science 48 (6), 698707. Chia- Kung L. and Jaafar Y., (2012), Prioritization of Factors Influencing Safety Performanceon Construction Sites: A Study based on Grade Seven (G7) Main ContractorsPerspectives, International conference on Business, Management and Governance (ICBMG 2012), Hong Kong Doloi, H. (2009). Relational Partnerships: The Importance of Communication, Trust and Confidence and Joint Risk Management in Achieving Project Success; Journal of Construction Management and Economics 27(11), 1099-1109. Employsure(2015). Put a stop to workplace injury and fatalityfile:///C:/Users/user/Desktop/Breach%20Of%20Workplace%20Safety%20Results %20In%20Tragic%20Death%20_%20Employsure.htm Accessed 20/9/2017 Enhance solutions (2014): Poor Safety Culture and Lack of Systems Lead to Fatality. file:///C:/Users/user/Desktop/Poor%20Safety%20Culture%20and%20Lack%20of%20Sys tems%20Lead%20to%20Fatality%20_%20Enhance%20Solutions.htm Accessed 20/9/2017 Giang D.T, Low Sui Pheng, S.L. (2010). Role of Construction in Economic Development:Review of key Concepts in the Past 40 Years; Habitat International (35) 118-125 Hallowell M.R and Gambatese, A.J. (2010). Construction Safety Risk Mitigation, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 136 (9). Hassan, C. R. C., Obasha, O. J. and Hanafi, W. H. W., (2007), Perception of Building Construction Workers towards Safety, Journal of Health and Environment, Vol. 2, No. 3,pp 271-279. Ismail, H. B., and Ghani, K. D. A., (2012), Potential Hazards at the Construction Workplace due to Temporary Structures, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 49, pp 168-174. Kikwasi G. (2010). Client Involvement in Construction Safety and Health; Journal for Buildingand Land development, Ardhi University Maytorena, E., Winch, G. M., Freeman, J. and Kiely, T. (2007). The Influence of Experience and Information Search Styles on Project Risk Identification Performance. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 54(2), 315-326. Wu, W., Gibb, A.F. and Li, Q., (2010). Accident Precursors and Near Misses on Construction Sites:an Investigative Tool to Derive Information from Accident Databases. Journal of Safety Science 48 (7), 845858.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Global Pharmaceutical Industry free essay sample

The case describes the evolution of the pharmaceutical industry and its strategic environment. Attention is drawn to environmental pressures from regulators and payers. Key forces driving the industry are discussed, including addressing unmet medical needs, the importance of innovation and time to market, and globalisation. The case illustrates how an increasingly hostile environment, combined with a decline in Ramp;D productivity, led to waves of job losses, and sparked a fresh round of consolidation. On the global level, the historical supremacy of the US was challenged with the highest market growth rates recorded in the emerging markets. Q1. Identify the main environmental forces currently affecting the global pharmaceutical industry. It is expected that all aspects of the PESTEL analysis will be addressed. Illustrative points are given here, but this is by no means exhaustive. Political – Government’s focus on the industry as an easy target in the drive to reduce healthcare expenditure; public outcry over safely alerts and international price comparisons; and public pressure to fund cancer medicines. We will write a custom essay sample on The Global Pharmaceutical Industry or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Economic – Pharmaceutical sales correlate closely with GDP – flattening in established markets and growth in emerging markets; the rise in the power of payers as decision-makers; in some countries patients are paying a greater proportion of drug costs themselves leading to increased linkage of sales and income levels; availability of venture and depth finance to support biotech innovation. Social – Aging population drive not only increases in healthcare costs but also increases in demand for medicines; pressure to act ethically rather than purely following profit; the number of better-informed patients with rising expectations; continued global convergence in medical practice and public acceptance of new technologies such as stem cells and genetic testing. Technological – Scientific and medical innovation; impact of information technology such as more well-informed patients and e-prescribing; shift towards more personalised healthcare. Environmental – Emphasis on sustainability by investors and employees. Legal – Increased regulatory focus on drug safety, industry sales and marketing practices; growth in liability claims particularly in the US. A key trend that students should highlight is the increased emphasis on cost-containment and value-for-money. Q2. Apply the Five-Forces framework and identify the importance of different environments forces affecting the global pharmaceutical industry. Students are expected to address all aspects of a five forces analysis, and discuss how these forces have changed over time. Illustrative points are given here, but this is by no means exhaustive. Threat of new entrants – The industry has historically had high barriers to entry, but these are dramatically lowered at patent expiry with generic entrants. Generic companies such as Teva and Dr Reddy’s are emerging as major global players with ambitions in the innovative sector. A greater focus on premium priced niche products for high unmet disease could facilitate entry by biotech companies. Power of buyers – Historically, buyers were highly fragmented medical practitioners, but now buying power is increasingly concentrated in a small number of payers with a major impact on market dynamics. Power of substitutes – Increased emphasis on generics being ‘good enough’ for common conditions and shrinking use of branded innovative drugs. Bio-similars will substitute for high priced biologics. Power of suppliers – Historically low, but declining Ramp;D productivity has increased the price tag on truly breakthrough licensing and acquisition opportunities. Competitive rivalry – Revelry within specific product classes has always been intense, and can be leveraged by payers to force competition on price; and increasing industry consolidation. It is important to acknowledge that the generic, OTC and vaccine sector are relatively mature, and the ethical pharmaceutical sector is arguably heading from growth towards shake-out, while the biotech sector is still under developed. Q3. Try to identify the strategic groups within the global ethical pharmaceutical industry? Describe the strategic choices made by Pfizer from 2008 onwards and comment on what may have been the drivers behind these choices. Based on the case, five broad types of industry players can be identified: ethical, generic, biotech, OTC and vaccine companies. Each requires very different strategic capabilities. Producers of branded prescription drugs require strong Ramp;D and global sales and marketing infrastructure. Generics companies focus on speed to market and manufacturing cost leadership. Biotech companies must create and defend intellectual property in specialised research fields, attract funding and make successful deals. Branded OTC drugs demand direct-to-consumer marketing capability. Many manufacturing companies operate in more than one of these sectors, and a strategic grouping can also be made on the basis of diversification versus focus. Highly diversified companies such as Johnsonamp;Johnson or Abbott also encompass completely different sectors such as consumer brands, medical devices or vetinerary products. Other leading companies are more narrowly diversified across conventional medicines, biologicals, vaccines and in some cases generics. The example of Pfizer illustrates the shift from a focus purely on conventional medicines to a wider strategy with the acquisition on Wyeth bringing a presence in biologics, vaccines and consumer health. A key driver here has been to reduce the reliance on a single blockbuster and establish a more stable, broad-based business.